یارسان

« دين حقيقت و بينش ياري يك تفكر ايلياتي و عشيره‌اي نيست كه براي محاسبات آن راهكاري سنتي بدون دخيل دادن علم و هر آنچه كه در حوزه‌ي نظامنديِ كائنات تعريف دارد در نظر گرفته شود. در واقع هر چقدر كه اشراق و مفاهيم يك تفكر بالاتر باشد، مباحث و گفتمان مربوط به آن نيز تخصصي‌تر و مشكل‌تر مي نماياند. پس ما نمي‌بايست كه مفاهيم را به اندازه‌ي وجود خود پائين بكشيم تا كه به گونه‌اي گردد كه هيچگاه عزم جزم براي بالا كشيدن و سعي براي فهميدن در خود پيدا نكنيم.»

 

 

 

 

نوشته شده توسط Stephen Schwartz دسته: مطالب
نمایش از 27 آبان 1399 بازدید: 39

The Enigmatic Death of an Iranian Émigré

by Stephen Schwartz

On a dark winter's day in Sweden some eight years ago, one of the most remarkable and beloved figures in modern Iranian culture died on a sidewalk. His name was Seyed Khalil Alinejad. While he is largely unknown among non-Iranians, since little is written about him in English, his story continues to provoke controversy and elicit mourning from Iranians living under the tyranny of the Tehran clerical regime. His tale offers a glimpse of the tormented history of the Iranian people, and it may even be seen as similar, in a sense, to the current opposition movement in Iran.

Seyed Khalil Alinejad was a musician who performed on the long-necked, oriental stringed instrument called the tanbur in Iran. (In Turkey it is called the saz, and those in the Balkans have other names for it.) His ethnicity was Kurdish. He was born in 1957 in the western Iranian region of Kermanshah, the son of a distinguished tanbur performer, Seyed Shah Moradi, and was encouraged to study the tanbur by his mother. Given his eventual standing as an Iranian national star, Seyed Khalil, as he is typically known, could be likened to the Iranian Bob Dylan/John Lennon. But unlike them, he underwent an extended course of study comparable to that of classical musicians in the West.

The family of Seyed Khalil were Sufis, initiated into Islamic spirituality, but of a particular kind. They belonged to a mainly-Kurdish Shia movement known as "Ahl-e Haqq" or "the people of truth," that has millions of members in Iran and Iraq, but who generally keep their affiliations secret. For the Ahl-e Haqq, music transcends performance and is the foundation of religious devotion. Music as a form of prayer is a phenomena also seen among the large Alevi Shia minority in Turkey, who suffer discrimination from both secular nationalists and the "soft fundamentalist" Justice and Development (AKP) government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Seyed Khalil studied with a series of distinguished musicians and members of the "people of truth," but his most important teacher was a Sufi master and musical virtuoso, Abedin Khademi. The young acolyte formed his first tanbur group in Sahne, a town in Kermanshah province. He then graduated from the Tehran Arts University, in the years of the Khomeini revolution, at the end of the 1970s. He went on to learn the Iranian style of traditional singing and performance on two other instruments, the tar, a variety of lute, and the daf, a drum with a metal frame.

In the 1980s, Seyed Khalil produced two albums of Sufi music, Love in Speech and Music, followed by Qalandari Whispers. He moved to Tehran and appeared in numerous music festivals, gaining a widening public. Seyed Khalil and his main group, the Baba Taher Ensemble, appear in YouTube videos, with instruments alone and including lyrics. His long, hippie-style hair and beard are notable, as he leads the group in playing and singing. He composed many pieces and wrote a book, The Tanbur Past and Present. But he is said to have felt lonely in the "new Iran," and emigrated to Sweden, where he taught the musical styles at which he excelled.

He died in Goteborg, Sweden's second-largest city, on November 18, 2001, in a mysterious building fire that was never adequately investigated and remains unexplained. Some Iranians say he was killed by rivals inside the Ahl-e Haqq, but many more believe he was murdered by agents of the Tehran regime. Web comments include the claim that he was still alive when taken out of the burnt building and died afterward. Regardless, he is remembered by many with great affection.

I knew nothing of Seyed Khalil, his music, his Sufism, his forlorn death and the failure to fully account for it until I met a long-exiled Iranian dissident in Western Europe almost two years ago. I had spent a good deal of time with Turkish and Kurdish Alevis in Germany who also exulted in their music of protest and praise of God's creation, but the emotion of Seyed Khalil and those who loved – and still love – him was different. My Iranian interlocutor, who must remain unnamed for his own safety, said to me, "sooner or later, the people of Iran will return to their authentic roots, and the clerical murderers will face justice." These words seemed, at the time, impossibly defiant. Today, it appears the moment is close when the secret of Seyed Khalil's death, and those of others killed at home and on foreign soil by Iranian agents, will be fully revealed. It is, sadly, a Sufi riddle more immediately relevant than many others.

 

r:Center for Islamic Pluralism


 

 Mourning a Beloved Iranian Sufi Singer, 10 Years Later

Millions of Iranian and Kurdish Sufis, in Iran and Iraq as well as in the Iranian and Kurdish communities abroad, will have observed the 10th anniversary, on Nov. 18, 2011, of the death of one of the greatest spiritual musicians known to them in modern times.

 

His name was Seyed Khalil Alinejad and he was killed in Sweden at the age of 44. Although he is unknown to the wider world, he was an unparalleled adept of the tanbur, a long-necked lute. He was the son of a distinguished tanbur player and was encouraged to study music by his mother.

Seyed Khalil completed the lengthy apprenticeship required of musicians in the Eastern tradition, and mastered all the important instruments in Persian and Kurdish music, as well as singing and composition. His most important teacher was a Sufi guide and musical virtuoso, Abedin Khademi. But the disciple became the initiator of a system of notated transcription of tanbur music, which had previously been taught and transmitted exclusively in oral form. Seyed Khalil created a musical group that still exists, the Baba Taher Ensemble, named for a classic Persian mystical poet whose verses have left a deep influence on the development of Iranian music. In the 1980s, Seyed Khalil produced albums of his songs as well as a book on the tanbur. His admirers have honored him by reissuing collections of music by the Baba Taher Ensemble and new editions of his writings.


He was an extraordinary performer, with a face that, while youthful and guileless, seemed filled with permanent awe at the spiritual realities of which he knew: he power of God, the eloquence of his Sufi peers, and the drama of spiritual struggle seen in the lives of Imam Ali, progenitor of Shiite Islam, and other forebears. His performances included works he wrote to accompany the poetry of the great Sufi, Jalaladin Rumi.


Seyed Khalil was an adherent of a Sufi movement with many members, but about which little is publically known — the Ahl-e Haqq or People of Truth, who claim millions of “hidden” acolytes in Iran and Iraq, especially among Kurds. For the Ahl-e Haqq, music transcends formal prayer as a means of sacred devotion. For other followers of esoteric Islam, music is an accessory to religious expression. But their dedication to music has given the Ahl-e Haqq considerable influence in Iranian culture, notwithstanding their reticence in revealing their Sufi identity and beliefs.


The Ahl-e Haqq belong to a spectrum of Sufis from the Balkans to Central Asia that have included hymns and the use of stringed instruments as essential observances of their faith. In the Albanian lands, this attitude is represented by the Bektashi Sufis, who sing and recite poetry as praise and expression of unity with God and creation. In Turkey, the vigorous “movement” of Alevi Muslims has made the melodies of the saz, an instrument closely related to the tanbur, the basis of their collective ritual, or cem, which is mainly composed of dancing or semah, led by women. Albanian Bektashis, Turkish and Kurdish Alevis, and many of the Iranian and Kurdish Ahl-e Haqq affirm their belief in the equality of men and women.


It is said of the Alevis and the saz, and of the Ahl-e Haqq and the tanbur, that in the home of each member a musical instrument may be found. The Ahl-e Haqq also perform on the daf, a flat, circular drum, and the tar, a Persian lute.


A large group among the Turkish and Kurdish Alevis join the Albanian Bektashis in celebrating the Turkish mystic Haji Bektash Veli (1209-71 C.E.), who was almost an exact contemporary, and a friend, of Rumi (1207-73), but has yet to be introduced to a mass audience in the West.


Seyed Khalil Alinejad was and remains beloved by Iranians, but went to live in Goteborg, Sweden, where he resided in a hostel for asylum seekers and other immigrants. He adopted a humble life-style, teaching classical Iranian and Kurdish instruments and song to adults and children. Those who knew Seyed Khalil say that as a Sufi he was pleased to serve and thought nothing of the rewards of the ordinary world. He often donated instruments to students and spent many hours with the youngest among them.

He was stabbed to death one morning, in the building where he came to teach his classes, before a fire in the lower floors of the structure. The cause and perpetrators of his death have never been identified. It remains a “cold case” in Goteborg police files, a legal mystery appearing tragically among the spiritual mysteries of Sufism. But his Sufi passion and his music remain alive among the initiated. Soon, perhaps, Seyed Khalil Alinejad will become known throughout the world, as he and his legacy deserve.

 

r: huffpost religion 

 

 

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